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Devanāgarī Alphabet and its Romanization

As envisaged in article 343 (i) of the Constitution of India, Hindi Written in Devanāgarī script is the official Language of the Indian Union. This script is also accepted all India script for Sanskrit Pali, Prakrit and Various forms of Apabhransha Language. In addition various modern Indian Languages, such as Marathi, Konkari, Nepali, Bodo, Santhali, Manipuri (all specified in the Eighth Schedule of the constitution of India are also written in this script. The same is also being used as an ‘additional script' for most of the modern Indian Languages.
The ‘Standardized Devanāgarī' is being used as the modern script for Hindi Language.
The Devanāgarī alphabet used for Hindi consists of 11vowels and 35 cononants, as follows:-
Hindi Vowels
Place and mode of articulation (obstruction in the larynx only, but none in the mouth)
Standard Roman Transliteration (with diacritic al marks)
Variation

Short, holy open, middle vowel Long, open, back vowel a
a

aa

Short, close, front vowel Long(er), Close(r), front vowel i
i
i
ii

Short, Close, back, rounded vowel Long(er), Close(x), back, rounded vowel u
u
u
uu 
Short and Pronounced as ri r: r

Long, holy-close, front vowel Long, holy-open, front vowel e
ai
e:
ai

Long, holy-close, back vowel Long, holy-open, back vowel o
au
o:
au 
 
Notes :-
(i)
The vowel ऋ occurs only in Tatsama words and is pronounced as (ri) in Hindi and रु (ru) in all the south Indian Languages along with Marathi and gujarati.
(ii)
The Long ऋ and both the short and Long लृ, (Sometimes included in the alphabetic chart of vowels) are no Longer in vough even in Sanskrit hence there is no need to included these sounds in Devanāgarī chart of vowels used for Hindi.
(iii)
In Hindi ऎ (ai) is no more Pronounced as diphthong. It has somewhat became short e ( ऎ ) as in है except मैया.
(iv)
औ: In Hindi it is no more pronounced as diphthong. It has somewhat became short o (ओ) as in कौन except कौआ All vowel are as a rule voiced sounds.
(v)
Anuswara (ं) and Visarga (:) are generally included in the List of vowel lएtters. But so for as Hindi is concerned, they are consonants.
(vi)
The sign of Anuswara (ं) is placed above a vowel (sign) may represent any one of the consonants ङ, ञ, ण -- and म.
(vii)
The sign Visarga (:) is placed after a vowel (sign) is pronounced as unvoiced fricalive (unvoiced ह)
(viii)
The sign Chandrabindu (ँ) is placed above a vowel (sign) indicates nazalization of vowel (i.e. Spoken Through the nose.) All vowels can be nasalized.
(ix)
The sign Chandra ( ) indiacates open in words borrowed from English, e.g. कॉलेज (college) ऑफिस (office) etc.
 
Consonants :-
Consonants           Place and mode of Articulation
Ka – Varga
Ka

Kha

Ga

Gha

Na
Soft – palatals velar stops/plosives
Ca – Varga
Ca

Cha Chha

Ja

Jha

Na
Palatal stops/plosives. In modern terminology affricates
Ta – varga
Ta

Tha

Da

Dha

Na
Cerebral or retroflex stops/plosive
Ta – varga
Ta

Tha

Da

Dha

Na
Dental stops or plosives
Pa – varga
pa

Pha

Ba

Bha

Ma
Bi-Labial stops or plosives
Semi Vowels :-  
 
Ya

Ra

La

Va
  (also wa as in jjj (swar)
 
Sa

Sa

Sa

Ha
  Sibilants or fricative missing sounds
 
Ra

Dha
      Retroflex flapped consonants
 
All vowel are as a rule voiced sounds.
In uttering consonants there is partial or complete obs as well traction in the mouth, with or without an obstruction in the laryzx
 
Notes :-
(i)
An अ (a) is inherent in each of the above consonant letters.
(ii)
Some consonants (the second and fourth letters of all the five vargas) are uttered with h- sound (with aspiration). These are called ‘aspirated' consonants. The rest (three letters) are ‘unaspirated' consonants.
(iii)
The first two consonants letters of each class of all the vargas are called ‘voiceless (without the vibration of the vocal chords). The rest (all the following three consonants) are voiced' (with the vibration of the vocal cords).
(iv)
The Last (fifth) Consonant letters of all the five Vargas are called ‘hazels' since the breath is also emitted through the nose. The fifth consonants of all the five vargas (वर्ग = class) are razal sounds: ङ, ञ, ण, न, म  out of which the first three never initially in hindi words.
(v)
The cerebrals (Retroflexes) are special Indian sounds with no parallel sounds in English.
(vi)
Out of the four letters included under the sub – need ‘Semi – Vowels' the first consonant य ya is a pure semi – vowel, where as the fourth consonant व is ‘voiced fricative (va) as in वन (van), but when it combines with a preceding consonants, it changes into pure semi – vowel (wa) as in अनुस्वार or स्वर (anuswar, swar) etc.
(vii)
ष occurs only in tatsama words (borrowed in Hindi from Sanskrit as such) so far as Hindi is concerned its pronunciation is identical to श.
(viii)
ड़ and ढ़ are special sounds of Hindi (not available in Sanskrit). They never occur initially in Hindi words.
(ix)
क्ष (ksa), त्र (tra), ज्ञ (jna) and श्र (sra) are really consonant clusters and ot pure consonants.
(x)
Some Arabic, Persian and English Consonants sounds are found in Hindi borrowed words from these Languages: These are represented as dotted Letters (with नुक्ता) : क़ Qa, ख़ Kha, ग़ (g), ज़ (za) and फ़ (fa).
(xi)
The sound (generally called the marathi sound) is not pronounced in standard Hindi. However, this sound con be heard in the local variety of Hindi (i.e.in Haryanni and Rajasthani Dialects). This letter has been included in the ‘Emplified Devanāgarī chart, for representing the sound found in the lacal dialects of Hindi as well as in other modern south Indian Languages along with Marathi and Gujarati etc.
 
 
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